Climate map

Afghanistan has four seasons, Autumn, Winter, Spring and Summer. While different regions in the country experience various different climates, much of the country has an arid to semiarid continental climate. Such is that winters are extremely cold, while summers are scorching hot. Afghanistan has a dry climate. The sun shines throughout most of the year.


Highlands, such as the mountains along the Hindu Kush, have subalpine climates. They are marked by dry, cold, and long winters as well as brief, mild summers. During the winters, temperatures can be as low as -25⁰C. Temperatures in the highlands vary relative to altitude; generally, the higher the elevation, the colder is becomes. Heavy snowfall during the winter can cause some local communities to become isolated for several months, particularly by blocking and causing mountain roads to become impassible.


The lowlands have warmer arid to semiarid climates. Temperatures in the southeastern lowlands can be as high as approximately 50⁰C during the summers, while it remains at about 20⁰C during the winter. Along Afghanistan’s western border, strong winds coming from the west frequently create large dust storms during the summer. The rocky terrain scattered throughout the country absorbs heat during daytime and radiates it during the night.


Most of the precipitation in Afghanistan occur between October and April. The mountains receive heavy snowing, while the deserts receive little rain. Much of agricultural irrigation in the mountainous regions depends on melting snow from the mountains, which accumulate during the winter and melt during the spring. In the lowlands, the scarce rains that fall during the autumn and especially the spring are essential to agriculture.